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Jumat, 16 Maret 2012

Istilah-Istilah Dalam Navigasi


AIS
Automatic Identification System
AMVER
Automated Mutual-Assistance Vessel Rescue System: a worldwide voluntary system operated exclusively to support SAR and to make information available to all RCCs
ARCS
Admiralty Raster Chart Service: electronic raster charts produced by the United Kingdom Hydrographic Office
ARPA
Automatic Radar Plotting Aid
ASF
Additional Secondary Factor: corrections to be applied when plotting Loran C positions on charts to take into account variations in the conductivity of the earth’s surface over which the signals pass
ATA
Automatic Tracking Aid: electronic plotting device or radars
CES
Coast Earth Station: maritime name for an INMARSAT shore-based station linking ship earth tations with terrestrial communication networks
COLREGS
Convention on the International Regulations for Preventing Collisions at Sea, 1972, as amended
COSPAS-SARSAT
A satellite system designed to detect distress beacons transmitting on the frequency 406 MHz
DATUM
A datum is a reference system for specifying positions on the earth’s surface. Each datum is associated with a particular reference spheroid that can be different in size, orientation and relative position from the spheroids associated with other horizontal datums. Positions referred to different datums can differ by several hundred metres
DGPS
Differential Global Positioning System (see GNSS)
DOC
Document of Compliance issued to the ship operator under the ISM Code
DP
Dynamic Positioning: the ability of a ship to maintain automatically a pre-set position and heading by using her own propellers and thrusters
DPO
Dynamic Positioning Operator, usually a bridge watchkeeper
DSC
Digital Selective Calling: a technique using digital codes which enable a radio station to establish contact with, and transfer information to, another station or group of stations
EBL
Electronic Bearing Line: a radar feature
ECDIS
Electronic Chart Display and Information System
ECS
Electronic Chart System
EGC
Enhanced Group Call: part of the INMARSAT system that complements the NAVTEX system to supply SafetyNET and similar information broadcast services
ENC
Electronic Navigational Chart
EP
Estimated Position
EPA
Electronic Plotting Aid: electronic plotting device for radars
EPIRB
Emergency Position Indicating Radio Beacon: a device that transmits distress alerting signals usually via satellites
FPSO/FGSO
Floating Production, Storage and Offloading/Floating Gas Storage Offloading ship/vessel or unit: an oil/gas production facility
GLONASS
Global Navigation Satellite System (see GNSS)
GMDSS
Global Maritime Distress and Safety System: a global communications service based upon automated systems, both satellite and terrestrial, to provide distress alerting and promulgation of maritime safety information for mariners
GNSS
Global Navigation Satellite System: a worldwide position and time determination system that includes one or more satellite constellations and receivers
GOC
General Operator’s Certificate: a GMDSS radio operator’s certificate for use on ships trading beyond GMDSS Sea Area A1. This is now usually incorporated into the STCW qualifications of deck officers at the operational level.
GPS
Global Positioning System (see GNSS)
HF
High Frequency
HPR
Hydroacoustic Position Reference: a PRS often used in conjunction with DP, configured with sea-floor acoustic transponders
IAMSAR
International Aeronautical and Maritime Search and Rescue Manual: published in three volumes jointly by ICAO and IMO
IBS
Integrated Bridge System
ICAO
International Civil Aviation Organization: Montreal based United Nations intergovernmental body
IHO
International Hydrographic Organization: Monaco based intergovernmental body
ILO
International Labour Organization: Geneva based United Nations intergovernmental body, responsible for seafarers’ employment standards
IMO
International Maritime Organization: London based United Nations intergovernmental body, responsible for the safety of life at sea, including navigational rules, and the protection of the marine environment
NAVTEX
Telegraphy system for broadcasting marine weather forecasts, navigational warnings, SAR alerts and other warnings and urgent information to ships in coastal waters (up to 400 nautical miles) under the WWNWS
NBDP
Narrow-Band Direct Printing telegraphy used for radiotelex and NAVTEX
NOAA
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration: United States producer of electronic raster charts
OOW
Officer of the Watch
PRS
Position Reference System: a navigational sensor (e.g. DGPS) used in conjunction with a DP system
RCC
Rescue Co-ordination Centre: a unit responsible for promoting the efficient organisation of SAR services and for co-ordinating the conduct of SAR operations within a SAR region
RCDS
Raster Chart Display System
RENC
Regional Electronic Navigational Chart Co-ordinating Centre: supplier of official chart data
RNC
Raster Navigational Chart
ROC
Restricted Operator’s Certificate: a GMDSS radio operator’s certificate for use on ships trading only in GMDSS Sea Area A1 R/T Radio Telephony S-57 Edition 3 IHO’s latest transfer standard for digital hydrographic data for use with ECDIS
SafetyNET
INMARSAT service for promulgating MSI to ships on the high seas; it includes shore-to-ship relays of distress alerts and communications for SAR co-ordination
SAR
Search and Rescue/International Convention on Maritime Search and Rescue, 1979, as amended
SART
Search and Rescue Transponder: a portable radar transponder for use in survival craft, which transmits homing signals in the 9 GHz band
SENC
System Electronic Navigational Chart: a database that comprises ENC data, ENC updates and other data added by the mariner that is accessed by, and displayed on, the ECDIS
SES
Ship Earth Station: shipborne satellite communication station, used for exchanging messages with shore subscribers and ships
SMCP
Standard Marine Communication Phrases: an updated version of SMNV that includes phrases that have been developed to cover the most important safety-related fields of verbal communications
SMNV
Standard Marine Navigational Vocabulary: adopted by IMO for communications on board ship as well as for those between ship and shore
SMPEP
Shipboard Marine Pollution Emergency Plan
SMS
Safety Management System under the ISM Code
SOLAS
International Convention for the Safety of Life at Sea, 1974, as amended
SOPEP
Shipboard Oil Pollution Emergency Plan
STCW
International Convention on Standards of Training, Certification and Watchkeeping for Seafarers, 1978, as amended STCW Code Seafarers’ Training, Certification and Watchkeeping Code, appended to the STCW Convention
S-VDR
Simplified Voyage Data Recorder
TMC
Transmitting Magnetic Compass
UMS
Unmanned Machinery Space
VDR
Voyage Data Recorder
VRM
Variable Range Marker: a radar feature
VTS
Vessel Traffic Services
WEND
World Electronic Navigational Chart Database
WGS84
World Geodetic System 1984 datum
WMO
World Meteorological Organization: Geneva based United Nations intergovernmental body
WWNWS
World-Wide Navigational Warning Service: established by IMO in collaboration with IHO for the dissemination of navigational warnings to ships
WWRNS
World-Wide Radio Navigation System: terrestrial and satellite radio-navigation systems that have been accepted by IMO as capable of providing adequate position information to an unlimited number of ships
XTE
Cross Track Error


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